Mechanisms for the lack of gravitational deceleration at large redshifts (i.e., between gravitational charges – masses – which are relativistically receding from one another)

Gravity gets weaker than the inverse square over massive distances in this universe.  This is because gravity is mediated by gravitons which get redshifted and thus the quanta lose energy when exchanged between masses which are receding at relativistic velocities, i.e. well apart in this expanding universe, which would reduce the effective value of G over immense distances.  Additionally, from empirical facts (see the calculations in this blog post),  the mechanism of gravity depends on surrounding recession of masses around any point. This means that if general relativity is just a classical approximation to quantum gravity (due to the graviton redshift effect just explained, which implies that spacetime is not curved over cosmological distances), we have to treat spacetime as finite and not bounded, so that what you see is what you get and the universe may be approximately analogous to a simple expanding fireball.

Masses near the real ‘outer edge’ (the radial distance in spacetime which corresponds to the time of big bang, i.e. 13,700 million light-years distance) of such a fireball (remember that since gravity doesn’t act over cosmological distances due to graviton redshift when exchanged between receding masses, there is no spacetime curvature causing gravitation over such distances) get an asymmetry in the exchange of gravitons: exchanging them on one side only (the side facing the core of the fireball, where other masses are located).

Hence such masses tend to just get pushed outward, instead of suffering the usual gravitational attraction, which is of course caused by shielding of all-round graviton pressure.  In such an expanding fireball where gravitation is a reaction to surrounding expansion due to exchange of gravitons, you will get both expansion and gravitation as results of the same fundamental process: exchange of gravitons. The pressure of gravitons will cause attraction (due to mutual shadowing) between masses which are relatively nearby, but over cosmological distances the whole collection of masses will be expanding (masses receding from one another) due to the momentum imparted in the process of exchanging gravitons. This prediction was put forward via the October 1996 Electronics World, two years before evidence from Perlmutter’s supernovae observations which confirmed that the universe is not decelerating contrary to the standard predictions of cosmology at that time (i.e., that the expansion of the universe looks as if there is a small positive cosmological constant – of predictable magnitude – offsetting gravitational deceleration over cosmological distances).  This accurate fact-based physical theory, is censored out, despite its success scientifically, by a failed 11/11 dimensional theory called string, which is getting ever more and more powerful.  According to Dr Woit’s latest blog post on Not Even Wrong:

“The string theory hype machine remains in overdrive, putting out nonsense press releases at an unparalleled rate. This week’s string theory hype is from Japan, where KEK has put out a press release claiming Interior Structure of a Black Hole Computed Using Superstrings, which tell us that:

It is expected that superstring theory will develop further and play an important role in solving interesting problems such as the evaporation of black holes, the state of the early universe and the creation of everything.

“The actual calculation behind the hype is a numerical simulation of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics system, which is described here.”

Those old stringers think that when they calculate the entropy of a particular unobserved black hole, they’re doing physics. (Similarly, Ptolemy thought he was doing physics when he calculated epicycle orbits of planets and stars going around the Earth.)

The first thing people should know about black holes is that:

  • Schwinger’s threshold electric field for pair production is 1.3*10^18 volts/metre. So at least that electric field strength must exist at the event horizon, before black holes emit any Hawking radiation! (This is the electric field strength at 33 fm from an electron.) Hence, in order to radiate by Hawking’s suggested mechanism, black holes must carry enough electric charge so make the eelectric field at the event horizon radius, R = 2GM/c^2, exceed 1.3*10^18 v/m.
  • Schwinger’s critical threshold for pair production is E_c = (m^2)*(c^3)/(e*h-bar) = 1.3*10^18 volts/metre. Source: equation 359 in or equation 8.20 in
  • Now the electric field strength from an electron is given by Coulomb’s law with F = E*q = qQ/(4*Pi*Permittivity*R^2), so
  • E = Q/(4*Pi*Permittivity*R^2) v/m.
  • Setting this equal to Schwinger’s threshold for pair-production, (m^2)*(c^3)/(e*h-bar) = Q/(4*Pi*Permittivity*R^2). Hence, the maximum radius out to which fermion-antifermion pair production and annihilation can occur is
  • R = [(Qe*h-bar)/{4*Pi*Permittivity*(m^2)*(c^3)}]^{1/2}.
  • Where Q is black hole’s electric charge, and e is electronic charge, and m is electron’s mass. Set this R equal to the event horizon radius 2GM/c^2, and you find the condition that must be satisfied for Hawking radiation to be emitted from any black hole:
  • Q > 16*Pi*Permittivity*[(mMG)^2]/(c*e*h-bar)
  • where M is black hole mass. So the amount of electric charge a black hole must possess before it can radiate (according to Hawking’s mechanism) is proportional to the square of the mass of the black hole. This is quite a serious problem for big black holes and frankly I don’t see how they can ever radiate anything at all.
  • On the other hand, it’s interesting to look at fundamental particles in terms of black holes (Yang-Mills force-mediating exchange radiation may be Hawking radiation in an equilibrium).
  • When you calculate the force of gauge bosons emerging from an electron as a black hole (the radiating power is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law, dependent on the black hole radiating temperature which is given by Hawking’s formula), you find it correlates to the electromagnetic force, allowing quantitative predictions to be made. See for example.
  • You also find that because the electron is charged negative, it doesn’t quite follow Hawking’s heuristic mechanism. Hawking, considering uncharged black holes, says that either of the fermion-antifermion pair is equally likey to fall into the black hole. However, if the black hole is charged (as it must be in the case of an electron), the black hole charge influences which particular charge in the pair of virtual particles is likely to fall into the black hole, and which is likely to escape. Consequently, you find that virtual positrons fall into the electron black hole, so an electron (as a black hole) behaves as a source of negatively charged exchange radiation. Any positive charged black hole similarly behaves as a source of positive charged exchange radiation.
  • These charged gauge boson radiations of electromagnetism are predicted by an SU(2) electromagnetic mechanism, see Figures 2, 3 and 4 of
  • For quantum gravity mechanism and the force strengths, particle masses, and other predictions resulting, please see

In the blog post below dated 21 April 2007, I set out some chapter titles for a book. Some of the tricky problems have since been explored and solved in subsequent blog posts here, so I think the time is right to compile and edit the book from the basic material drafted in posts here. Obviously a lot of compression, omission of less relevant material, and improvement to the draft material on this blog is needed. Looking back at the list of 10 chapters suggested in the earlier post, my feeling is still that this structural organization will produce a readable book from the material I have. It is necessary in a complex area to ensure that complex problems are tackled by several different approaches and from several different directions (this is not overlap or repetition, but consolidation). For example, the content of chapter 2 is going to be a discussion with diagrams, to give an overview of what string theory is about. We don’t need to discuss the technical mathematics of Ptolemy’s epicycles when I discuss what is wrong with it, and so neither do we need to that when dismissing mainstream string ‘theory’ for failing to address any real physical facts in a useful manner. I intend to write the book on paper and then type it in, instead of typing direct on a computer. (The extra time spent this way will improve the quality level way over that in this blog.)

One important thing I mentioned in the last post, which (apart from the nature of the electron as trapped negative electromagnetic field energy; see Electronics World, April 2003), is fairly comprehensive, is the first major comfirmed prediction. This is the lack of gravitational retardation on the big bang at large redshifts, i.e., great distances. There are several mechanisms behind this fact. See calculations here and here which need to be consolidated with the more recent blog post results and with more detailed calculations and turned into a concise book chapter.

Update: there’s a discussion in the comments about abusive censorship from fascist charlatans like Edward Witten who misleadingly and ignorantly claimed:

String theory has the remarkable property of predicting gravity.’ – Dr Edward Witten, M-theory originator, Physics Today, April 1996.

It turns out that Witten is going to Stockholm in April to receive a share in an alternative to the Nobel Prize, because of his amazing self-hype and the fact that his papers are not being censored off without being read.  Hitler as of 1933 is a similar example: he didn’t personally gas millions of people, he was democratically elected for making misleading statements that were popular despite being (like string) not based solidly upon factual evidence like the fundamental force mechanisms. I’ve written in two previous posts (here and here) about the harm that string ‘theory’ is doing to physics.  Fascism all about hyping lies using the argument that so many people can’t be wrong, Hitler/Witten is a genius because so many people worship him, etc., etc.  There is no decency from these people.  Their inhumanity is pretty clear to see.  They have power, so they use it ruthlessly to achieve what they want, prizes.  Their crackpotism isn’t the harmless variety, it’s the Hollywood star type: they’re charlatans who prosper by being abusive to others and by holding up scientific progress with stupid ideas which are complete failures.  The media worship these people:

Sent: 02/01/03 17:47
Subject: Your_manuscript LZ8276 Cook
{MECHANISM OF GRAVITY WITH QUANTITATIVE PREDICTIONS OF GRAVITY STRENGTH AND COSMOLOGY FEATURES, made in 1996 and confirmed by Perlmutter’s CCD observations on supernovae in 1998}
Physical Review Letters does not, in general, publish papers on alternatives to currently accepted theories [i.e., mainstream charlatan string theories] Yours sincerely, Stanley G. Brown, Editor, Physical Review Letters

That’s just one trifling example I can give for the effects of lies/spin/delusion hype due to Witten in destroying the prestige of physics (for other people whose work is censored within seconds and before being read, see ), and it is not new that the dictatorial suppressor and censor is the one who actually gets praised just for being a ‘hardworking’ leader – a fact that even occurred when Winston Churchill wrote of Hitler in his 1935 book Great Contemporaries:

‘The story of [Hitler’s] struggle cannot be read without admiration for the courage, the perseverance, and the vital force which enabled him to challenge, defy, conciliate, or overcome, all the authorities or resistances which barred his path…. Thus the world lives on hopes that the worst is over…’

– Winston Churchill, ‘Hitler and His Choice’, a chapter of Churchill’s book Great Contemporaries, 1935, quoted online here.

‘Of course the date is key, 1935. The Manchester Guardian newspaper reported the first concentration camps in Germany for Jews and many others deemed unworthy, if I recall correctly, a year later, in 1936. So Churchill was writing at a time just before the worst of the Nazi abuses, although of course they had begun with brownshirts raiding Jewish premises as early as 1933.’

‘The problem is clearly there in Churchill’s 1935 essay on Hitler: until a dictatorial political leader commits genocide, you can’t tell what he/her might do for certain, but you can pick up clues about her/his intentions regarding other cultures, and neighbours.’

‘Hitler’s fascism is based on the false concept that diversity leads to weakness, and purity leads to strength. Of course purity leads to a cloning, orthodox mentality at some stage, which suppresses dissent.’

‘Fascism is not a doctrinal creed; it is a way of behaving towards your fellow man. What, then, are the tell-tale hallmarks of this horrible attitude? Paranoid control-freakery; an obsessional hatred of any criticism or contradiction; the lust to character-assassinate anyone even suspected of it; a compulsion to control or at least manipulate the media … the majority of the rank and file prefer to face the wall while the jack-booted gentlemen ride by.’ – Frederick Forsyth, Daily Express, 7 Oct. 05, p. 11.

Witten’s abuse of the media is shown in his letter to Nature:

‘The critics feel passionately that they are right, and that their viewpoints have been unfairly neglected by the establishment. … They bring into the public arena technical claims that few can properly evaluate. … Responding to this kind of criticism can be very difficult. It is hard to answer unfair charges of élitism without sounding élitist to non-experts. A direct response may just add fuel to controversies.’ – Dr Edward Witten, M-theory originator, Nature, Vol 444, 16 November 2006.

By refusing to respond to critics of the mainstream, very little criticism can get published, because the media is interested in the mainstream string theorists more than in the (non-mainstream) critics: the mechanism behind getting discussion in the media is that string theorists must be willing to stand up and defend their thesis in public (only then will a journalist have a ‘controversial story’ to print).  If they are unwilling to defend themselves without being elitist, that adds to their sense of failure.  They’re prepared to hype and spin-promote nonsense to non-physicists, but they’re unable or unwilling to do so to fellow physicists who are unable to publish because of their Nazism.  The fear Witten has of adding ‘fuel to controversies’ is precisely the fear that by responding to criticism, the mainstream will give a fair airing to the failures of string theory.  Witten’s claim that ‘it is hard to answer unfair charges of élitism without sounding élitist to non-experts’ is an admission of the failure of string theorists to respond scientifically and factually to charges of the failure of string theory.

It’s hard to respond scientifically without resorting to elitism, precisely because string ‘theory’ isn’t scientific.  Hence, the only way string ‘theorists’ can respond to criticism is by elitism.  I.e., by fascist sneering at other people.  Witten doesn’t want that to occur.  Hitler similarly in 1932 ducked out of a meeting Churchill wanted at the last moment, when Churchill asked an intermediary, ‘Why is your chief so violent about the Jews … How can any man help how he is born?’  The mechanism behind the fascism of Edward Witten’s fans towards those with factual physics is equally transparent.  They are just abusive fascists with no regard for physical fact.  So can we any longer believe the claim that mainstream string theory is driven by ignorance or fantasy?  It may be a better model to propose that it’s more likely driven by a fanatical misanthropy, a fascist religion of bigotry; similar to Nazism as of 1933 or maybe similar to the 9/11 terrorists while in preparation before their main attacks.  Of course, because there are a lot of fascists around, anyone criticising them is made (by the media) to look like the misanthropic person.  If you cut the bigoted mysticism, gloss and spin out of religion, Christianity is a pretty simple story in which Jesus gets crucified by the fanatism of the charlatan leaders of his own (Jewish) religion who refuse to listen to what he says, and just assume he’s a dangerous quack without first bothering to listen to the message.  When Jesus gets a bit angry and overturns some tables in the Temple, that confirms he is a danger to status quo, instead of making anyone listen.

If you compare the reception of Jesus (12 disciples, including 1 doubting Thomas and 1 betraying Judas) to Hitler, you see a deep rooted problem in human nature:

Q: Was Hitler democratically elected as Chancellor of Germany in 1933?

A: Yes. Of course he was.

However, because the office of Chancellor was not filled by popular election, it might be more accurate to say that Hitler was constitutionally chosen to be the Chancellor of Germany, a democratic nation. The point is, there was nothing about Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor (30 Jan. 1933) which violated the Constitution of Germany. President Hindenburg legally selected the leader of the largest party in Parliament to head up a coalition government. It has happened hundreds of times throughout history without being considered undemocratic.

Only in light of later events does it become obvious that this was the beginning of the end of democratic rule in Germany. If Hitler had suddenly died in office before the Reichtag Fire (27 Feb. 1933) gave him the excuse to crush the opposition, history would record the uninterrupted flow of democracy in Germany in 1933. Granted, the window of opportunity for Hitler to leave a legacy as a proper democrat was only open for a single month, but that could have been enough.

The myth that Hitler slipped into power by way of an illegal backroom deal which bypassed the constitution is more comforting than considering that maybe laws and democratic constitutions are not foolproof safeguards against the emergence of tyrants. If a constitutionally valid plurality want tyranny, they’ll get it.

Democracy = power of the majority = mob rule.  Worse, real democracy was a daily referendum in the Ancient Greek city states at which all citizens could vote on policies, whereas what is today called ‘democracy’ in the West is a complete travesty of democracy, a choice every four years between two spin and hype ‘political parties’, offering trivial democracy.  It’s quite possible for the few parties to all have similar policies on important issues, so there is no democracy at all on offer.  Even if the best form of democracy on offer was available, i.e., the Ancient Greek model (perhaps through daily online internet voting for policies by citizens), it is still subject to mob culture (e.g., Socrates was murdered as a result of a democratic vote in Athens, for the crime of exercising freedom of speech).

What people don’t grasp is that it is vital to have a clear sense of perspective on the benefits and the failures of current scientific and political systems.  What happens instead is that anybody delivering the facts is subject to abusive attacks and false claims: ‘Shoot the messenger.’  You can support democracy without having to worship it religiously.  Likewise, you can work on string theory without having to claim falsely that it makes amazing predictions about quantum gravity.  You don’t have to be fanatically fascist towards other people just because they are trying to deal with facts that you prefer to pretend don’t exist!